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Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response
Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Rozzano 20089, Italy
Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano 20089, Italy
Department of Cellular Biotechnology and Hematology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00185, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
Abstract: Immune response plays a fundamental role in protecting the organism from infections; however, dysregulation often occurs and can be detrimental for the organism, leading to a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Recently our understanding of the molecular and cellular networks regulating the immune response, and, in particular, adaptive immunity, has improved dramatically. For many years, much of the focus has been on the study of protein regulators; nevertheless, recent evidence points to a fundamental role for specific classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in regulating development, activation and homeostasis of the immune system. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most comprehensive and well-studied, a number of reports suggest the exciting possibility that long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) could mediate host response and immune function. Finally, evidence is also accumulating that suggests a role for miRNAs and other small ncRNAs in autocrine, paracrine and exocrine signaling events, thus highlighting an elaborate network of regulatory interactions mediated by different classes of ncRNAs during immune response. This review will explore the multifaceted roles of ncRNAs in the adaptive immune response. In particular, we will focus on the well-established role of miRNAs and on the emerging role of lncRNAs and circulating ncRNAs, which all make indispensable contributions to the understanding of the multilayered modulation of the adaptive immune response.
Keywords: noncoding RNAs; adaptive immunity; lymphocytes; epigenetic
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MDPI and ACS Style
Curtale, G.; Citarella, F. Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 17347-17377.
Curtale G, Citarella F. Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(9):17347-17377.
Curtale, Graziella; Citarella, Franca. 2013. "Dynamic Nature of Noncoding RNA Regulation of Adaptive Immune Response." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 9: 17347-17377.