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The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers
Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2013; in revised form: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
Abstract: Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin αVβ3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin αVβ3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals.
Keywords: thyroid hormone; thyroid hormone receptor; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; liver cancer; pancreatic cancer; colorectal cancer
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Brown, A.R.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A. The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 16240-16257.
Brown AR, Simmen RCM, Simmen FA. The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):16240-16257.
Brown, Adam R.; Simmen, Rosalia C.M.; Simmen, Frank A. 2013. "The Role of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in the Prevention of Digestive System Cancers." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 16240-16257.