Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15695-15723; doi:10.3390/ijms140815695
Review

Lessons Learned about Human Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: A Long Road Still Ahead of Us

Received: 30 May 2013; in revised form: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Human stem cells (hSC) possess several distinct characteristics that set them apart from other cell types. First, hSC are self-renewing, capable of undergoing both asymmetric and symmetric cell divisions. Second, these cells can be coaxed to differentiate into various specialized cell types and, as such, hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Recent progresses in hSC biology fostered the characterization of the responses of hSC to genotoxic stresses, including ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we examine how different types of hSC respond to IR, with a special emphasis on their radiosensitivity, cell cycle, signaling networks, DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) possess unique characteristics in how they react to IR that clearly distinguish these cells from all adult hSC studied thus far. On the other hand, a manifestation of radiation injuries/toxicity in human bodies may depend to a large extent on hSC populating corresponding tissues, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), neural hSC, intestine hSC, etc. We discuss here that hSC responses to IR differ notably across many types of hSC which may represent the distinct roles these cells play in development, regeneration and/or maintenance of homeostasis.
Keywords: human embryonic stem cells; human adult stem cells; ionizing radiation; radiation toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sokolov, M.; Neumann, R. Lessons Learned about Human Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: A Long Road Still Ahead of Us. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15695-15723.

AMA Style

Sokolov M, Neumann R. Lessons Learned about Human Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: A Long Road Still Ahead of Us. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15695-15723.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sokolov, Mykyta; Neumann, Ronald. 2013. "Lessons Learned about Human Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: A Long Road Still Ahead of Us." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15695-15723.

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