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Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on A549 Cells
Laboratory for Medical Engineering, Division of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan
Department of Pathologic Oncology, Institute of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu 514-8507, Japan
Department of Environmental Oncology, Institute of Individual Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu 807-8555, Japan
Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2013; in revised form: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Abstract: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MgNPs-Fe3O4) are widely used in medical applications, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and in hyperthermia. However, the same properties that aid their utility in the clinic may potentially induce toxicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of MgNPs-Fe3O4 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. MgNPs-Fe3O4 caused cell membrane damage, as assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), only at a high concentration (100 μg/mL); a lower concentration (10 μg/mL) increased the production of reactive oxygen species, increased oxidative damage to DNA, and decreased the level of reduced glutathione. MgNPs-Fe3O4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the CD44+ fraction of A549 cells. MgNPs-Fe3O4 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 at a concentration of 1 μg/mL, and in a dose-dependent manner. Despite these effects, MgNPs-Fe3O4 had minimal effect on cell viability and elicited only a small increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that MgNPs-Fe3O4 exert little or no cytotoxicity until a high exposure level (100 μg/mL) is reached. This dissociation between elevated indices of cell damage and a small effect on cell viability warrants further study.
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; A549; CD44
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Watanabe, M.; Yoneda, M.; Morohashi, A.; Hori, Y.; Okamoto, D.; Sato, A.; Kurioka, D.; Nittami, T.; Hirokawa, Y.; Shiraishi, T.; Kawai, K.; Kasai, H.; Totsuka, Y. Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on A549 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15546-15560.
Watanabe M, Yoneda M, Morohashi A, Hori Y, Okamoto D, Sato A, Kurioka D, Nittami T, Hirokawa Y, Shiraishi T, Kawai K, Kasai H, Totsuka Y. Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on A549 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15546-15560.
Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yoneda, Misao; Morohashi, Ayaka; Hori, Yasuki; Okamoto, Daiki; Sato, Akiko; Kurioka, Daisuke; Nittami, Tadashi; Hirokawa, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Taizo; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Totsuka, Yukari. 2013. "Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on A549 Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15546-15560.