Abstract: Despite the large efforts to prepare super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) for biomedical applications, the number of FDA or EMA approved formulations is few. It is not known commonly that the approved formulations in many instances have already been withdrawn or discontinued by the producers; at present, hardly any approved formulations are produced and marketed. Literature survey reveals that there is a lack for a commonly accepted physicochemical practice in designing and qualifying formulations before they enter in vitro and in vivo biological testing. Such a standard procedure would exclude inadequate formulations from clinical trials thus improving their outcome. Here we present a straightforward route to assess eligibility of carboxylated MNPs for biomedical tests applied for a series of our core-shell products, i.e., citric acid, gallic acid, poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) coated MNPs. The discussion is based on physicochemical studies (carboxylate adsorption/desorption, FTIR-ATR, iron dissolution, zeta potential, particle size, coagulation kinetics and magnetization measurements) and involves in vitro and in vivo tests. Our procedure can serve as an example to construct adequate physico-chemical selection strategies for preparation of other types of core-shell nanoparticles as well.
Keywords: carboxylated magnetite nanoparticles; core-shell nanoparticles; adsorption; surface complexation; chemical stability; iron dissolution; colloidal stability; particle charge; biocompatibility; biomedical application
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Szekeres, M.; Tóth, I.Y.; Illés, E.; Hajdú, A.; Zupkó, I.; Farkas, K.; Oszlánczi, G.; Tiszlavicz, L.; Tombácz, E. Chemical and Colloidal Stability of Carboxylated Core-Shell Magnetite Nanoparticles Designed for Biomedical Applications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14550-14574.
Szekeres M, Tóth IY, Illés E, Hajdú A, Zupkó I, Farkas K, Oszlánczi G, Tiszlavicz L, Tombácz E. Chemical and Colloidal Stability of Carboxylated Core-Shell Magnetite Nanoparticles Designed for Biomedical Applications. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14550-14574.
Szekeres, Márta; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Illés, Erzsébet; Hajdú, Angéla; Zupkó, István; Farkas, Katalin; Oszlánczi, Gábor; Tiszlavicz, László; Tombácz, Etelka. 2013. "Chemical and Colloidal Stability of Carboxylated Core-Shell Magnetite Nanoparticles Designed for Biomedical Applications." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14550-14574.