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DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis
Cancer Research Center of Toulouse Inserm UMR 1037, 31432 Toulouse cedex 4, France
University de Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France
Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2013; in revised form: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Abstract: DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results.
Keywords: DNA methylation; biomarkers; cancer diagnosis; DNA methylation inhibitors; clinical trials
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MDPI and ACS Style
Delpu, Y.; Cordelier, P.; Cho, W.C.; Torrisani, J. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15029-15058.
Delpu Y, Cordelier P, Cho WC, Torrisani J. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):15029-15058.
Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme. 2013. "DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 15029-15058.