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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14771-14784; doi:10.3390/ijms140714771
Review

Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

1
, 2
, 2
 and 1,2,*
Received: 9 May 2013; in revised form: 28 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
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Abstract: Cancer diagnosis is currently undergoing a paradigm shift with the incorporation of molecular biomarkers as part of routine diagnostic panel. The molecular alteration ranges from those involving the DNA, RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding endogenous single-stranded RNAs that critically regulates the development, invasion and metastasis of cancers. They are altered in cancers and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers for cancer. Moreover, deregulating their activity offers novel cancer therapeutic approaches. The availability of high throughput techniques for the identification of altered cellular molecules allowed their use in cancer diagnosis. Their application to a variety of body specimens from blood to tissues has been helpful for appreciating their use in the clinical context. The development of innovative antibodies for immunohistochemical detection of proteins also assists in diagnosis and risk stratification. Overall, the novel cancer diagnostic tools have extended their application as prognostic risk factors and can be used as targets for personalized medicine.
Keywords: advances; cancer diagnosis; basic; clinical; translational research advances; cancer diagnosis; basic; clinical; translational research
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sethi, S.; Ali, S.; Philip, P.A.; Sarkar, F.H. Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14771-14784.

AMA Style

Sethi S, Ali S, Philip PA, Sarkar FH. Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14771-14784.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sethi, Seema; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H. 2013. "Clinical Advances in Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14771-14784.



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