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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 10869-10895; doi:10.3390/ijms140610869
Review

Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells

1,†
, 1,2,†
 and 1,*
Received: 9 April 2013; in revised form: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Epidermal Stem Cells)
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Abstract: Epidermis is one of the best-studied tissues in mammals that contain types of stem cells. Outstanding works in recent years have shed great light on behaviors of different epidermal stem cell populations in the homeostasis and regeneration of the epidermis as well as hair follicles. Also, the molecular mechanisms governing these stem cells are being elucidated, from genetic to epigenetic levels. Compared with the explicit knowledge about adult skin, embryonic development of the epidermis, especially the early period, still needs exploration. Furthermore, stem cells in the embryonic epidermis are largely unstudied or ambiguously depicted. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the process of embryonic epidermal development, with focuses on some key molecular regulators and the role of the sub-epidermal mesenchyme. We will also try to trace adult epidermal stem cell populations back to embryonic development. In addition, we will comment on in vitro derivation of epidermal lineages from ES cells and iPS cells.
Keywords: epidermal development; hair follicles; epidermal stem cells; mesenchyme-epithelial interactions; pluripotent stem cells epidermal development; hair follicles; epidermal stem cells; mesenchyme-epithelial interactions; pluripotent stem cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Duan, E. Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10869-10895.

AMA Style

Liu S, Zhang H, Duan E. Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):10869-10895.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Huishan; Duan, Enkui. 2013. "Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 10869-10895.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert