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Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2013; in revised form: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Abstract: Epidermis is one of the best-studied tissues in mammals that contain types of stem cells. Outstanding works in recent years have shed great light on behaviors of different epidermal stem cell populations in the homeostasis and regeneration of the epidermis as well as hair follicles. Also, the molecular mechanisms governing these stem cells are being elucidated, from genetic to epigenetic levels. Compared with the explicit knowledge about adult skin, embryonic development of the epidermis, especially the early period, still needs exploration. Furthermore, stem cells in the embryonic epidermis are largely unstudied or ambiguously depicted. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the process of embryonic epidermal development, with focuses on some key molecular regulators and the role of the sub-epidermal mesenchyme. We will also try to trace adult epidermal stem cell populations back to embryonic development. In addition, we will comment on in vitro derivation of epidermal lineages from ES cells and iPS cells.
Keywords: epidermal development; hair follicles; epidermal stem cells; mesenchyme-epithelial interactions; pluripotent stem cells
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Duan, E. Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 10869-10895.
Liu S, Zhang H, Duan E. Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(6):10869-10895.
Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Huishan; Duan, Enkui. 2013. "Epidermal Development in Mammals: Key Regulators, Signals from Beneath, and Stem Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 6: 10869-10895.