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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(5), 9963-9978; doi:10.3390/ijms14059963
Review

Posttranslational Modifications of GLUT4 Affect Its Subcellular Localization and Translocation

,
,
 and †,*
Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, Davidson Building, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation of Membrane Trafficking and Its Potential Implications)
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Abstract

The facilitative glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in adipose and muscle and plays a vital role in whole body glucose homeostasis. In the absence of insulin, only ~1% of cellular GLUT4 is present at the plasma membrane, with the vast majority localizing to intracellular organelles. GLUT4 is retained intracellularly by continuous trafficking through two inter-related cycles. GLUT4 passes through recycling endosomes, the trans Golgi network and an insulin-sensitive intracellular compartment, termed GLUT4-storage vesicles or GSVs. It is from GSVs that GLUT4 is mobilized to the cell surface in response to insulin, where it increases the rate of glucose uptake into the cell. As with many physiological responses to external stimuli, this regulated trafficking event involves multiple posttranslational modifications. This review outlines the roles of posttranslational modifications of GLUT4 on its function and insulin-regulated trafficking.
Keywords: GLUT4; posttranslational modification; transport; ubiquitin; phosphorylation; SUMO GLUT4; posttranslational modification; transport; ubiquitin; phosphorylation; SUMO
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sadler, J.B.A.; Bryant, N.J.; Gould, G.W.; Welburn, C.R. Posttranslational Modifications of GLUT4 Affect Its Subcellular Localization and Translocation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 9963-9978.

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