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Where Do They Come from and Where Do They Go: Candidates for Regulating Extracellular Vesicle Formation in Fungi
The Michael Smith Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Centre for Technological Development in Health (CDTS), Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 2 May 2013
Abstract: In the past few years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from at least eight fungal species were characterized. EV proteome in four fungal species indicated putative biogenesis pathways and suggested interesting similarities with mammalian exosomes. Moreover, as observed for mammalian exosomes, fungal EVs were demonstrated to be immunologically active. Here we review the seminal and most recent findings related to the production of EVs by fungi. Based on the current literature about secretion of fungal molecules and biogenesis of EVs in eukaryotes, we focus our discussion on a list of cellular proteins with the potential to regulate vesicle biogenesis in the fungi.
Keywords: fungal extracellular vesicles; extracellular vesicle biogenesis; exosomes; flippases; GRASP
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MDPI and ACS Style
Oliveira, D.L.; Rizzo, J.; Joffe, L.S.; Godinho, R.M.C.; Rodrigues, M.L. Where Do They Come from and Where Do They Go: Candidates for Regulating Extracellular Vesicle Formation in Fungi. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 9581-9603.
Oliveira DL, Rizzo J, Joffe LS, Godinho RMC, Rodrigues ML. Where Do They Come from and Where Do They Go: Candidates for Regulating Extracellular Vesicle Formation in Fungi. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(5):9581-9603.
Oliveira, Débora L.; Rizzo, Juliana; Joffe, Luna S.; Godinho, Rodrigo M.C.; Rodrigues, Marcio L. 2013. "Where Do They Come from and Where Do They Go: Candidates for Regulating Extracellular Vesicle Formation in Fungi." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 5: 9581-9603.