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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(2), 2431-2448; doi:10.3390/ijms14022431

The Yin-Yang of DNA Damage Response: Roles in Tumorigenesis and Cellular Senescence

5,*  and 1,*
1 Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China 2 Department of Medical Oncology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110032, China 3 Section of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA 4 Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong 5 Radiation Medicine Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyenggi 410-769, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 25 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases)
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Senescent cells are relatively stable, lacking proliferation capacity yet retaining metabolic activity. In contrast, cancer cells are rather invasive and devastating, with uncontrolled proliferative capacity and resistance to cell death signals. Although tumorigenesis and cellular senescence are seemingly opposite pathological events, they are actually driven by a unified mechanism: DNA damage. Integrity of the DNA damage response (DDR) network can impose a tumorigenesis barrier by navigating abnormal cells to cellular senescence. Compromise of DDR, possibly due to the inactivation of DDR components, may prevent cellular senescence but at the expense of tumor formation. Here we provide an overview of the fundamental role of DDR in tumorigenesis and cellular senescence, under the light of the Yin-Yang concept of Chinese philosophy. Emphasis is placed on discussing DDR outcome in the light of in vivo models. This information is critical as it can help make better decisions for clinical treatments of cancer patients.
Keywords: DNA damage response; cell cycle arrest; tumorigenesis; senescence DNA damage response; cell cycle arrest; tumorigenesis; senescence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Li, X.; Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Lin, M.; Song, X.; Yi, F.; Feng, Y.; Coughlan, K.A.; Cho, W.C.-S.; Kim, S.S.; Cao, L. The Yin-Yang of DNA Damage Response: Roles in Tumorigenesis and Cellular Senescence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 2431-2448.

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