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Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Golding 101, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2013; in revised form: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not alter OA disease progression. Prolonged consumption of these drugs can result in severe adverse effects. Given the nature of OA, life-long treatment will likely be required to arrest or slow its progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for OA disease-modifying therapies which also improve symptoms and are safe for clinical use over long periods of time. Nutraceuticals—food or food products that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease—offer not only favorable safety profiles, but may exert disease- and symptom-modification effects in OA. Forty-seven percent of OA patients use alternative medications, including nutraceuticals. This review will overview the efficacy and mechanism of action of commonly used nutraceuticals, discuss recent experimental and clinical data on the effects of select nutraceuticals, such as phytoflavonoids, polyphenols, and bioflavonoids on OA, and highlight their known molecular actions and limitations of their current use. We will conclude with a proposed novel nutraceutical-based molecular targeting strategy for chondroprotection and OA treatment.
Keywords: nutraceuticals; osteoarthritis; molecular targets
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Leong, D.J.; Choudhury, M.; Hirsh, D.M.; Hardin, J.A.; Cobelli, N.J.; Sun, H.B. Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23063-23085.
Leong DJ, Choudhury M, Hirsh DM, Hardin JA, Cobelli NJ, Sun HB. Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):23063-23085.
Leong, Daniel J.; Choudhury, Marwa; Hirsh, David M.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil J.; Sun, Hui B. 2013. "Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 23063-23085.