Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 23045-23062; doi:10.3390/ijms141123045
Article

Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

1,2email, 1,2email, 3email, 3email, 3email, 4email and 1,2,4,5,* email
Received: 7 August 2013; in revised form: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Ageing)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Although recent studies have proven that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockades retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy, the detailed mechanisms of their reno-protective effects on the development of diabetic nephropathy remain uncertain. In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) augmentation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, no direct evidence is available to demonstrate that AGT expression is enhanced in the kidneys of patients with diabetes. To examine whether the expression levels of ROS- and RAS-related factors in kidneys are increased with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, biopsied samples from 8 controls and 27 patients with type 2 diabetes were used. After the biopsy, these patients were diagnosed with minor glomerular abnormality or diabetes mellitus by clinical and pathological findings. The intensities of AGT, angiotensin II (Ang II), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry. Expression levels were greater in patients with diabetes than in control subjects. Moreover, the augmented intrarenal AGT mRNA expression paralleled renal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. These data suggest the importance of the activated oxidative stress/AGT/RAS axis in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
Keywords: angiotensinogen; clinical study; diabetic nephropathy; oxidative stress; renin-angiotensin system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kamiyama, M.; Urushihara, M.; Morikawa, T.; Konishi, Y.; Imanishi, M.; Nishiyama, A.; Kobori, H. Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 23045-23062.

AMA Style

Kamiyama M, Urushihara M, Morikawa T, Konishi Y, Imanishi M, Nishiyama A, Kobori H. Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):23045-23062.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamiyama, Masumi; Urushihara, Maki; Morikawa, Takashi; Konishi, Yoshio; Imanishi, Masahito; Nishiyama, Akira; Kobori, Hiroyuki. 2013. "Oxidative Stress/Angiotensinogen/Renin-Angiotensin System Axis in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 23045-23062.

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