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Non-Coding RNAs: The “Dark Matter” of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology
Division of Cardiology, Magna Graecia University, URT Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Catanzaro 88100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013; in revised form: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 9 October 2013
Abstract: Large-scale analyses of mammalian transcriptomes have identified a significant number of different RNA molecules that are not translated into protein. In fact, the use of new sequencing technologies has identified that most of the genome is transcribed, producing a heterogeneous population of RNAs which do not encode for proteins (ncRNAs). Emerging data suggest that these transcripts influence the development of cardiovascular disease. The best characterized non-coding RNA family is represented by short highly conserved RNA molecules, termed microRNAs (miRNAs), which mediate a process of mRNA silencing through transcript degradation or translational repression. These microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed in cardiovascular tissues and play key roles in many cardiovascular pathologies, such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). Potential links between other ncRNAs, like long non-coding RNA, and cardiovascular disease are intriguing but the functions of these transcripts are largely unknown. Thus, the functional characterization of ncRNAs is essential to improve the overall understanding of cellular processes involved in cardiovascular diseases in order to define new therapeutic strategies. This review outlines the current knowledge of the different ncRNA classes and summarizes their role in cardiovascular development and disease.
Keywords: non-coding RNA; microRNA; long non-coding RNA; vascular development; vascular disease; heart pathophysiology
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Iaconetti, C.; Gareri, C.; Polimeni, A.; Indolfi, C. Non-Coding RNAs: The “Dark Matter” of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 19987-20018.
Iaconetti C, Gareri C, Polimeni A, Indolfi C. Non-Coding RNAs: The “Dark Matter” of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):19987-20018.
Iaconetti, Claudio; Gareri, Clarice; Polimeni, Alberto; Indolfi, Ciro. 2013. "Non-Coding RNAs: The “Dark Matter” of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 19987-20018.