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Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Disorder Unit, Neurological Institute Foundation IRCCS C. Besta, via Amadeo 42, Milan 20133, Italy
Molecular Immunology Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, via Amadeo 42, Milan 20133, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2012; in revised form: 24 October 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Abstract: Mast cells (MCs) are best known as key immune players in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent allergic reactions. In recent years, several lines of evidence have suggested that MCs might play an important role in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Since their first description in MS plaques in the late 1800s, much effort has been put into elucidating the contribution of MCs to the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. Mouse models of MC-deficiency have provided a valuable experimental tool for dissecting MC involvement in MS and EAE. However, to date there is still major controversy concerning the function of MCs in these diseases. Indeed, although MCs have been classically proposed as having a detrimental and pro-inflammatory role, recent literature has questioned and resized the contribution of MCs to the pathology of MS and EAE. In this review, we will present the main evidence obtained in MS and EAE on this topic, and discuss the critical and controversial aspects of such evidence.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; mast cells
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Costanza, M.; Colombo, M.P.; Pedotti, R. Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 15107-15125.
Costanza M, Colombo MP, Pedotti R. Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):15107-15125.
Costanza, Massimo; Colombo, Mario P.; Pedotti, Rosetta. 2012. "Mast Cells in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 15107-15125.