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Prognostic and Predictive Roles of KRAS Mutation in Colorectal Cancer
Division of Surgical Oncology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90001, USA
Division of Colorectal Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 11597, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2012; in revised form: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
Abstract: The RAS gene family is among the most studied and best characterized of the known cancer-related genes. Of the three human ras isoforms, KRAS is the most frequently altered gene, with mutations occurring in 17%–25% of all cancers. In particular, approximately 30%–40% of colon cancers harbor a KRAS mutation. KRAS mutations in colon cancers have been associated with poorer survival and increased tumor aggressiveness. Additionally, KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer lead to resistance to select treatment strategies. In this review we examine the history of KRAS, its prognostic value in patients with colorectal cancer, and evidence supporting its predictive value in determining appropriate therapies for patients with colorectal cancer.
Keywords: KRAS; colorectal cancer; colon cancer; EGFR; Let7; ras; oncogenes
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MDPI and ACS Style
Arrington, A.K.; Heinrich, E.L.; Lee, W.; Duldulao, M.; Patel, S.; Sanchez, J.; Garcia-Aguilar, J.; Kim, J. Prognostic and Predictive Roles of KRAS Mutation in Colorectal Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 12153-12168.
Arrington AK, Heinrich EL, Lee W, Duldulao M, Patel S, Sanchez J, Garcia-Aguilar J, Kim J. Prognostic and Predictive Roles of KRAS Mutation in Colorectal Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(10):12153-12168.
Arrington, Amanda K.; Heinrich, Eileen L.; Lee, Wendy; Duldulao, Marjun; Patel, Supriya; Sanchez, Julian; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kim, Joseph. 2012. "Prognostic and Predictive Roles of KRAS Mutation in Colorectal Cancer." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 10: 12153-12168.