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Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis
Genomics Sciences Program, Oncogenomics and Cancer Proteomics Laboratory, University Autonomous of Mexico City, Av. San Lorenzo 290, 03100, México
Carcinogenesis Laboratory, National Institute of Cancerology, Av. Saint Fernando 22, 14080, México
Massive Sequencing Unit, National Institute of Cancerology, Av. Saint Fernando 22, 14080, México
Genomics Laboratory, FES-I, UBIMED, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Av. De los Barrios 1, 54090, México
Biotechnology Program, Institutional Program of Molecular Biomedicine, National School of Medicine and Homeopathy of the National Polytechnic Institute, Guillermo Massieu Helguera 239, 07320, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2011; in revised form: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 16 December 2011 / Published: 23 December 2011
Abstract: Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor that leads to immune suppression, inflammation, photoaging, and skin carcinogenesis. Here, we reviewed the specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors involved in the cellular response to UV-irradiation. Increasing experimental data supporting a role for p38, MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and ATM kinases in the response network to UV exposure is discussed. We also reviewed the participation of NF-κB, AP-1, and NRF2 transcription factors in the control of gene expression after UV-irradiation. In addition, we discussed the promising chemotherapeutic intervention of transcription factors signaling by natural compounds. Finally, we focused on the review of data emerging from the use of DNA microarray technology to determine changes in global gene expression in keratinocytes and melanocytes in response to UV treatment. Efforts to obtain a comprehensive portrait of the transcriptional events regulating photodamage of intact human epidermis after UV exposure reveals the existence of novel factors participating in UV-induced cell death. Progress in understanding the multitude of mechanisms induced by UV-irradiation could lead to the potential use of protein kinases and novel proteins as specific targets for the prevention and control of skin cancer.
Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; skin cancer; skin photoaging; p38; MAPK; JNK; ERK1/2; ATM; SKR kinases; NF-κB; AP-1; NRF2 transcription factors
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López-Camarillo, C.; Aréchaga Ocampo, E.; López Casamichana, M.; Pérez-Plasencia, C.; Álvarez-Sánchez, E.; Marchat, L.A. Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 142-172.
López-Camarillo C, Aréchaga Ocampo E, López Casamichana M, Pérez-Plasencia C, Álvarez-Sánchez E, Marchat LA. Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(1):142-172.
López-Camarillo, César; Aréchaga Ocampo, Elena; López Casamichana, Mavil; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Álvarez-Sánchez, Elizbeth; Marchat, Laurence A. 2012. "Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 1: 142-172.