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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 142-172; doi:10.3390/ijms13010142
Review

Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis

1,* , 2
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Received: 20 November 2011; in revised form: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 16 December 2011 / Published: 23 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death)
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Abstract: Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor that leads to immune suppression, inflammation, photoaging, and skin carcinogenesis. Here, we reviewed the specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors involved in the cellular response to UV-irradiation. Increasing experimental data supporting a role for p38, MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and ATM kinases in the response network to UV exposure is discussed. We also reviewed the participation of NF-κB, AP-1, and NRF2 transcription factors in the control of gene expression after UV-irradiation. In addition, we discussed the promising chemotherapeutic intervention of transcription factors signaling by natural compounds. Finally, we focused on the review of data emerging from the use of DNA microarray technology to determine changes in global gene expression in keratinocytes and melanocytes in response to UV treatment. Efforts to obtain a comprehensive portrait of the transcriptional events regulating photodamage of intact human epidermis after UV exposure reveals the existence of novel factors participating in UV-induced cell death. Progress in understanding the multitude of mechanisms induced by UV-irradiation could lead to the potential use of protein kinases and novel proteins as specific targets for the prevention and control of skin cancer.
Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; skin cancer; skin photoaging; p38; MAPK; JNK; ERK1/2; ATM; SKR kinases; NF-κB; AP-1; NRF2 transcription factors ultraviolet radiation; skin cancer; skin photoaging; p38; MAPK; JNK; ERK1/2; ATM; SKR kinases; NF-κB; AP-1; NRF2 transcription factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

López-Camarillo, C.; Aréchaga Ocampo, E.; López Casamichana, M.; Pérez-Plasencia, C.; Álvarez-Sánchez, E.; Marchat, L.A. Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 142-172.

AMA Style

López-Camarillo C, Aréchaga Ocampo E, López Casamichana M, Pérez-Plasencia C, Álvarez-Sánchez E, Marchat LA. Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(1):142-172.

Chicago/Turabian Style

López-Camarillo, César; Aréchaga Ocampo, Elena; López Casamichana, Mavil; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Álvarez-Sánchez, Elizbeth; Marchat, Laurence A. 2012. "Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 1: 142-172.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert