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Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2011; in revised form: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 17 May 2011
Abstract: The science and policy of pharmaceuticals produced and/or delivered by plants has evolved over the past twenty-one years from a backyard remedy to regulated, purified products. After seemingly frozen at Phase I human clinical trials with six orally delivered plant-made vaccines not progressing past this stage over seven years, plant-made pharmaceuticals have made a breakthrough with several purified plant-based products advancing to Phase II trials and beyond. Though fraught with the usual difficulties of pharmaceutical development, pharmaceuticals made by plants have achieved pertinent milestones albeit slowly compared to other pharmaceutical production systems and are now at the cusp of reaching the consumer. Though the current economic climate begs for cautious investment as opposed to trail blazing, it is perhaps a good time to look to the future of plant-made pharmaceutical technology to assist in planning for future developments in order not to slow this technology’s momentum. To encourage continued progress, we highlight the advances made so far by this technology, particularly the change in paradigms, comparing developmental timelines, and summarizing the current status and future possibilities of plant-made pharmaceuticals.
Keywords: plant-made; recombinant protein; expression system
plant-made; recombinant protein; expression system
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MDPI and ACS Style
Thomas, D.R.; Penney, C.A.; Majumder, A.; Walmsley, A.M. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3220-3236.
Thomas DR, Penney CA, Majumder A, Walmsley AM. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(5):3220-3236.
Thomas, David R.; Penney, Claire A.; Majumder, Amrita; Walmsley, Amanda M. 2011. "Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 5: 3220-3236.