Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3220-3236; doi:10.3390/ijms12053220
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Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals

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Received: 1 April 2011; in revised form: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 17 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Pharmaceuticals by Molecular Farming)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The science and policy of pharmaceuticals produced and/or delivered by plants has evolved over the past twenty-one years from a backyard remedy to regulated, purified products. After seemingly frozen at Phase I human clinical trials with six orally delivered plant-made vaccines not progressing past this stage over seven years, plant-made pharmaceuticals have made a breakthrough with several purified plant-based products advancing to Phase II trials and beyond. Though fraught with the usual difficulties of pharmaceutical development, pharmaceuticals made by plants have achieved pertinent milestones albeit slowly compared to other pharmaceutical production systems and are now at the cusp of reaching the consumer. Though the current economic climate begs for cautious investment as opposed to trail blazing, it is perhaps a good time to look to the future of plant-made pharmaceutical technology to assist in planning for future developments in order not to slow this technology’s momentum. To encourage continued progress, we highlight the advances made so far by this technology, particularly the change in paradigms, comparing developmental timelines, and summarizing the current status and future possibilities of plant-made pharmaceuticals.
Keywords: plant-made; recombinant protein; expression system plant-made; recombinant protein; expression system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thomas, D.R.; Penney, C.A.; Majumder, A.; Walmsley, A.M. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3220-3236.

AMA Style

Thomas DR, Penney CA, Majumder A, Walmsley AM. Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(5):3220-3236.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thomas, David R.; Penney, Claire A.; Majumder, Amrita; Walmsley, Amanda M. 2011. "Evolution of Plant-Made Pharmaceuticals." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 5: 3220-3236.

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