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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3237-3249; doi:10.3390/ijms12053237
Communication

Mechanism of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate- and Lysophosphatidic Acid-Induced Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules and Eosinophil Chemoattractant in Nerve Cells

1
,
1
,
1
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland 2 Department of Dermatology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2011 / Revised: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 9 May 2011 / Published: 17 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

The lysophospholipids sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) act via G-protein coupled receptors S1P1–5 and LPA1–3 respectively, and are implicated in allergy. Eosinophils accumulate at innervating cholinergic nerves in asthma and adhere to nerve cells via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells were used as an in vitro cholinergic nerve cell model. The Gi coupled receptors S1P1, S1P3, LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3 were expressed on IMR-32 cells. Both S1P and LPA induced ERK phosphorylation and ERK- and Gi-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, with differing time courses. LPA also induced ERK- and Gi-dependent up-regulation of the eosinophil chemoattractant, CCL-26. The eosinophil granule protein eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) induced ERK-dependent up-regulation of transcription of S1P1, LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3, providing the situation whereby eosinophil granule proteins may enhance S1P- and/or LPA- induced eosinophil accumulation at nerve cells in allergic conditions.
Keywords: lysophospholipid; neuronal; eosinophil lysophospholipid; neuronal; eosinophil
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Costello, R.W.; Maloney, M.; Atiyeh, M.; Gleich, G.; Walsh, M.-T. Mechanism of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate- and Lysophosphatidic Acid-Induced Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules and Eosinophil Chemoattractant in Nerve Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 3237-3249.

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