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α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as Potential Biological Fluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease
Laboratory for Chemistry and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, Tokyo, 183-8526, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2010; in revised form: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 28 October 2010 / Published: 29 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common form of movement disorder and affects approximately 4% of the population aged over 80 years old. Currently, PD cannot be prevented or cured, and no single diagnostic biomarkers are available. Notably, recent studies suggest that two familial PD-linked molecules, α-synuclein and DJ-1, are present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and that their levels may be altered during the progression of PD. In this regard, sensitive and accurate methods for evaluation of α-synuclein and DJ-1 levels in the CSF and blood have been developed, and the results suggest that the levels of both molecules are significantly decreased in the CSF in patients with PD compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, specific detection and quantification of neurotoxic oligometric forms of α-synuclein in the blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays might be expected as potential peripheral biomarkers for PD, although further validation is required. Currently, neither α-synuclein nor DJ-1 is satisfactory as a single biomarker for PD, but combinatory evaluation of these biological fluid molecules with other biomarkers and imaging techniques may provide reliable information for diagnosis of PD.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; cerebrospinal fluid; biomarker; α-synuclein; DJ-1
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Waragai, M.; Sekiyama, K.; Sekigawa, A.; Takamatsu, Y.; Fujita, M.; Hashimoto, M. α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as Potential Biological Fluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 4257-4266.
Waragai M, Sekiyama K, Sekigawa A, Takamatsu Y, Fujita M, Hashimoto M. α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as Potential Biological Fluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(11):4257-4266.
Waragai, Masaaki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Sekigawa, Akio; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Fujita, Masayo; Hashimoto, Makoto. 2010. "α-Synuclein and DJ-1 as Potential Biological Fluid Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11, no. 11: 4257-4266.