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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(10), 4428-4434; doi:10.3390/ijms10104428
Review

Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation

1,2
, 1,2
 and 3,*
Received: 3 September 2009; in revised form: 29 September 2009 / Accepted: 9 October 2009 / Published: 15 October 2009
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Abstract: Pigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes is regulated by tyrosinase, the critical rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is degraded endogenously, at least in part, by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Several types of inherited hypopigmentary diseases, such as oculocutaneous albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, involve the aberrant processing and/or trafficking of tyrosinase and its subsequent degradation which can occur due to the quality-control machinery. Studies on carbohydrate modifications have revealed that tyrosinase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is proteolyzed via ER-associated protein degradation and that tyrosinase degradation can also occur following its complete maturation in the Golgi. Among intrinsic factors that regulate the UPS, fatty acids have been shown to modulate tyrosinase degradation in contrasting manners through increased or decreased amounts of ubiquitinated tyrosinase that leads to its accelerated or decelerated degradation by proteasomes.
Keywords: fatty acid; melanin; melanocyte; tyrosinase; skin; pigmentation fatty acid; melanin; melanocyte; tyrosinase; skin; pigmentation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ando, H.; Ichihashi, M.; Hearing, V.J. Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4428-4434.

AMA Style

Ando H, Ichihashi M, Hearing VJ. Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(10):4428-4434.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ando, Hideya; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Hearing, Vincent J. 2009. "Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 10: 4428-4434.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert