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Role of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulating Skin Pigmentation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5326-5349; doi:10.3390/ijms10125326
Review

The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

1,* , 2
 and 3
1 Department of Clinical Chemistry, room L02-56, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 2 DermData, Prague, Czech Republic 3 Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 December 2009 / Published: 10 December 2009
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Abstract

Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes.
Keywords: whitening; tyrosinase inhibitors; natural agents; cosmetics whitening; tyrosinase inhibitors; natural agents; cosmetics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Smit, N.; Vicanova, J.; Pavel, S. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5326-5349.

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