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The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents
Department of Clinical Chemistry, room L02-56, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
DermData, Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2009; in revised form: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 9 December 2009 / Published: 10 December 2009
Abstract: Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes.
Keywords: whitening; tyrosinase inhibitors; natural agents; cosmetics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Smit, N.; Vicanova, J.; Pavel, S. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5326-5349.
Smit N, Vicanova J, Pavel S. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5326-5349.
Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan. 2009. "The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 12: 5326-5349.