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Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071498

Phenolic and Nonpolar Fractions of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson Extracts as Virulence Modulators—In Vitro Study on Bacteria, Fungi, and Epithelial Cells

1
Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 91-237 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, State Research Institute, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
3
Laboratory of Microbiological and Technical Services, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 91-237 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paula B. Andrade
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Potential of Marine and Terrestrial Species)
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Abstract

Butanol extracts from leaves, twigs, and fruits of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson (sea buckthorn, SBT) were fractionated into phenolic and nonpolar lipid components, the chemical composition of which was analyzed. Assuming that an effect on natural microbiota and host epithelial cells needs to be assessed, regardless of the purpose of using SBT formulations in vivo, the minimal inhibitory/biocidal/fungicidal concentrations (MICs/MBCs/MFCs) of the fractions and reference phytocompounds were screened, involving 17 species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. The MICs of SBT extracts were in the range of 0.25–2.0 mg∙mL−1. Since direct antimicrobial activity of the extracts was quite low and variable, the impact of subMIC on the important in vivo persistence properties of model microorganisms S. aureus and C. albicans was evaluated. Tests for adhesion and biofilm formation on an abiotic surface and on surfaces conditioned with fibrinogen, collagen, plasma, or artificial saliva showed the inhibitory activity of the fractions. The effects on fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled staphylococci adhesion to fibroblasts (HFF-1) and epithelial cells (Caco-2), and on fungal morphogenesis, indicated that SBT extracts have high antivirulence potential. Cytotoxicity tests (MTT reduction) on the standard fibroblast cell line showed variable biological safety of the fractions depending on their composition and concentration. The new information afforded by this study, additional to that already known, is of potential practical value in the application of SBT-derived preparations as antivirulence agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Elaeagnus rhamnoides butanol extracts; phenolic; nonpolar fractions; antivirulence properties Elaeagnus rhamnoides butanol extracts; phenolic; nonpolar fractions; antivirulence properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Różalska, B.; Sadowska, B.; Żuchowski, J.; Więckowska-Szakiel, M.; Budzyńska, A.; Wójcik, U.; Stochmal, A. Phenolic and Nonpolar Fractions of Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A. Nelson Extracts as Virulence Modulators—In Vitro Study on Bacteria, Fungi, and Epithelial Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 1498.

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