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Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061327

Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Bioactives in Colored Grains by Nano-Carriers in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

1
Department of Integrated Biosciences, College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
2
Nanotechnology Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
3
Department of Central Area, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 16429, Korea
4
Department of Nano Science & Mechatronics Engineering, College of Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
5
Institute of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Their Medicinal Importance)
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Abstract

The use of phytochemicals for preventing chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cataracts is hindered by their low bioavailability. The effects of nano-carriers on the antioxidant activities of extracts of black rice with giant embryo (BRGEx) and soybeans (SBx) have been determined in human lens epithelial B3 cells. Scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that rGO (reduced graphene oxide) has a flat surface unlike GO (graphene oxide), which has a distinctive wrinkled structure with defects. UPLC analysis revealed 41.9 μg/100 g of γ-oryzanols in water extract of BRGE, and 111.8 μg /100 g of lutein, 757.7 μg/100 g of γ-tocotrienol, 4071.4 μg/100 g of γ-tocopherol in 40% ethanol extract of soybeans, respectively. Even though a low concentration of BRGEx alone did not show any antioxidant activity in B3 cells, co-treatment of BRGEx with rGO together substantially reduced hydrogen peroxide and methylglyoxal-induced DNA damage, as determined by phosphorylated γH2AX. In addition, SBx with rGO also attenuated DNA damage. Furthermore, intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly decreased by combining extracts of these colored grains with rGO. These results suggest a potential application of nanocarriers for enhancing the bioavailability of phytochemicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioavailability; oxidative DNA damage; γH2AX; black rice with giant embryo; reduced graphene oxide bioavailability; oxidative DNA damage; γH2AX; black rice with giant embryo; reduced graphene oxide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, Y.-M.; Yoon, Y.; Yoon, H.; Song, S.; Park, H.-M.; Lee, Y.Y.; Shin, H.; Hwang, S.W.; Yeum, K.-J. Enhanced Antioxidant Activity of Bioactives in Colored Grains by Nano-Carriers in Human Lens Epithelial Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 1327.

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