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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040948

Anthocyanin Composition and Content in Rye Plants with Different Grain Color

1
Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, Universiteskaya nab.7/9, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
2
Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg branch, Universiteskaya nab. 7/9, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018)
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Abstract

The color of grain in cereals is determined mainly by anthocyanin pigments. A large level of genetic diversity for anthocyanin content and composition in the grain of different species was observed. In rye, recessive mutations in six genes (vi1...vi6) lead to the absence of anthocyanins in all parts of the plant. Moreover, dominant genes of anthocyanin synthesis in aleurone (gene C) and pericarp (gene Vs) also affect the color of the grain. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to study anthocyanins in 24 rye samples. A lack of anthocyanins in the lines with yellow and brown grain was determined. Delphinidin rutinoside and cyanidin rutinoside were found in the green-seeded lines. Six samples with violet grains significantly varied in terms of anthocyanin composition and content. However, the main aglycone was cyanidin or peonidin in all of them. Monosaccharide glucose and disaccharide rutinose served as the glycoside units. Violet-seeded accession forms differ in the ratio of the main anthocyanins and the range of their acylated derivatives. The acyl groups were presented mainly by radicals of malonic and sinapic acids. For the colored forms, a profile of the revealed anthocyanins with the indication of their contents was given. The obtained results are discussed in connection to similar data in rice, barley, and wheat, which will provide a perspective for future investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: rye inbred lines; genes of grain color; anthocyanin identification; comparative genetics; HPLC-MS analysis rye inbred lines; genes of grain color; anthocyanin identification; comparative genetics; HPLC-MS analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zykin, P.A.; Andreeva, E.A.; Lykholay, A.N.; Tsvetkova, N.V.; Voylokov, A.V. Anthocyanin Composition and Content in Rye Plants with Different Grain Color. Molecules 2018, 23, 948.

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