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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 898; doi:10.3390/molecules23040898

Cardiovascular Mechanisms of Action of Anthocyanins May Be Associated with the Impact of Microbial Metabolites on Heme Oxygenase-1 in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

1
Department of Nutrition and Preventative Medicine, Norwich Medical School, Bob Champion Research and Education Building, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
2
School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018)
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Abstract

Anthocyanins are reported to have cardio-protective effects, although their mechanisms of action remain elusive. We aimed to explore the effects of microbial metabolites common to anthocyanins and other flavonoids on vascular smooth muscle heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Thirteen phenolic metabolites identified by previous anthocyanin human feeding studies, as well as 28 unique mixtures of metabolites and their known precursor structures were explored for their activity on HO-1 protein expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). No phenolic metabolites were active when treated in isolation; however, five mixtures of phenolic metabolites significantly increased HO-1 protein expression (127.4–116.6%, p ≤ 0.03). The present study demonstrates that phenolic metabolites of anthocyanins differentially affect HO-1 activity, often having additive, synergistic or nullifying effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin; smooth muscle cells; metabolism; antioxidant; atherosclerosis anthocyanin; smooth muscle cells; metabolism; antioxidant; atherosclerosis
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Warner, E.F.; Rodriguez-Ramiro, I.; O’Connell, M.A.; Kay, C.D. Cardiovascular Mechanisms of Action of Anthocyanins May Be Associated with the Impact of Microbial Metabolites on Heme Oxygenase-1 in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 898.

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