Next Article in Journal
Probiotic Properties of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tempoyak
Next Article in Special Issue
Kinetics and Optimization of Lipophilic Kojic Acid Derivative Synthesis in Polar Aprotic Solvent Using Lipozyme RMIM and Its Rheological Study
Previous Article in Journal
Activity of Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis Essential Oils against Bacteria, Molds and Yeasts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Lipase-Produced Hydroxytyrosyl Eicosapentaenoate is an Excellent Antioxidant for the Stabilization of Omega-3 Bulk Oils, Emulsions and Microcapsules
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020397

Enhancing the Bioconversion of Azelaic Acid to Its Derivatives by Response Surface Methodology

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran 14977-13115, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 13 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipases and Lipases Modification)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4699 KB, uploaded 13 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Azelaic acid (AzA) and its derivatives have been known to be effective in the treatment of acne and various cutaneous hyperpigmentary disorders. The esterification of azelaic acid with lauryl alcohol (LA) to produce dilaurylazelate using immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) is reported. Response surface methodology was selected to optimize the reaction conditions. A well-fitting quadratic polynomial regression model for the acid conversion was established with regards to several parameters, including reaction time and temperature, enzyme amount, and substrate molar ratios. The regression equation obtained by the central composite design of RSM predicted that the optimal reaction conditions included a reaction time of 360 min, 0.14 g of enzyme, a reaction temperature of 46 °C, and a molar ratio of substrates of 1:4.1. The results from the model were in good agreement with the experimental data and were within the experimental range (R2 of 0.9732).The inhibition zone can be seen at dilaurylazelate ester with diameter 9.0±0.1 mm activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis S273. The normal fibroblasts cell line (3T3) was used to assess the cytotoxicity activity of AzA and AzA derivative, which is dilaurylazelate ester. The comparison of the IC50 (50% inhibition of cell viability) value for AzA and AzA derivative was demonstrated. The IC50 value for AzA was 85.28 μg/mL, whereas the IC50 value for AzA derivative was more than 100 μg/mL. The 3T3 cell was still able to survive without any sign of toxicity from the AzA derivative; thus, it was proven to be non-toxic in this MTT assay when compared with AzA. View Full-Text
Keywords: azelaic acid; anti-acne; enzymatic reaction; Novozym 435; response surface methodology (RSM) azelaic acid; anti-acne; enzymatic reaction; Novozym 435; response surface methodology (RSM)
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khairudin, N.; Basri, M.; Fard Masoumi, H.R.; Samson, S.; Ashari, S.E. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Azelaic Acid to Its Derivatives by Response Surface Methodology. Molecules 2018, 23, 397.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top