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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 66; doi:10.3390/molecules23010066

Activation Profile Analysis of CruCA4, an α-Carbonic Anhydrase Involved in Skeleton Formation of the Mediterranean Red Coral, Corallium rubrum

1
Istituto di Bioscienze e Biorisorse, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, 80131 Napoli, Italy
2
Dipartimento Di Chimica, Laboratorio di Chimica Bioinorganica, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Polo Scientifico, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence), Italy
3
Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 Quai Antoine 1°, 98000 Monaco, Monaco
4
Dipartimento Neurofarba, Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Nutraceutiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via U. Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence), Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metalloenzyme Inhibitors and Activators)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [861 KB, uploaded 28 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

CruCA4, a coral α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) involved in the biomineralization process of the Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, was investigated for its activation with a panel of amino acids and amines. Most compounds showed considerable activating properties, with a rather well defined structure–activity relationship. The most effective CruCA4 activators were d-His, 4-H2N-l-Phe, Histamine, Dopamine, Serotonin, 1-(2-Aminoethyl)-piperazine, and l-Adrenaline, with activation constants in the range of 8–98 nM. Other amines and amino acids, such as d-DOPA, l-Tyr, 2-Pyridyl-methylamine, 2-(2-Aminoethyl) pyridine and 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-morpholine, were submicromolar CruCA4 activators, with KA ranging between 0.15 and 0.93 µM. Since it has been shown that CA activators may facilitate the initial phases of in-bone mineralization, our study may be relevant for finding modulators of enzyme activity, which can enhance the formation of the red coral skeleton. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; activators; biomineralization; coral; calcification; amine; amino acid carbonic anhydrase; activators; biomineralization; coral; calcification; amine; amino acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Del Prete, S.; Vullo, D.; Zoccola, D.; Tambutté, S.; Supuran, C.T.; Capasso, C. Activation Profile Analysis of CruCA4, an α-Carbonic Anhydrase Involved in Skeleton Formation of the Mediterranean Red Coral, Corallium rubrum. Molecules 2018, 23, 66.

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