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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1404; doi:10.3390/molecules22091404

The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation

1
Department of Plant Physiology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
3
Chair of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, 87−100 Toruń, Poland
4
Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704 Poznań, Poland
5
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Dojazd 11, 60-632 Poznań, Poland
6
Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Laboratory of Environmental Analyses, the Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute, Węgorka 20, 60−101 Poznań, Poland
7
Department of Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abiotic factor, i.e., lead at various concentrations (low causing a hormesis effect and causing high toxicity effects), on the generation of signalling molecules in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski) seedlings and then during infestation by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The second objective was to verify whether the presence of lead in pea seedling organs and induction of signalling pathways dependent on the concentration of this metal trigger defense responses to A. pisum. Therefore, the profile of flavonoids and expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (phenylalanine ammonialyase and chalcone synthase) were determined. A significant accumulation of total salicylic acid (TSA) and abscisic acid (ABA) was recorded in the roots and leaves of pea seedlings growing on lead-supplemented medium and next during infestation by aphids. Increased generation of these phytohormones strongly enhanced the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including a phytoalexin, pisatin. This research provides insights into the cross-talk between the abiotic (lead) and biotic factor (aphid infestation) on the level of the generation of signalling molecules and their role in the induction of flavonoid biosynthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; Acyrthosiphon pisum; signalling molecules; flavonoids; pisatin; flavonoid biosynthesis enzymes; defense responses; Pisum sativum lead; Acyrthosiphon pisum; signalling molecules; flavonoids; pisatin; flavonoid biosynthesis enzymes; defense responses; Pisum sativum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Woźniak, A.; Drzewiecka, K.; Kęsy, J.; Marczak, Ł.; Narożna, D.; Grobela, M.; Motała, R.; Bocianowski, J.; Morkunas, I. The Influence of Lead on Generation of Signalling Molecules and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Pea Seedlings in Response to Pea Aphid Infestation. Molecules 2017, 22, 1404.

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