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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1271; doi:10.3390/molecules22081271

In Vitro Evaluation of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Plant-Derived Antifungal Compounds on FUSARIA Growth and Mycotoxin Production

1
Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics (CREA-GB), Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via San Protaso 302, 29017 Fiorenzuola d’Arda (PC), Italy
2
Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Ouargla 30 000, Algérie
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents)
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Abstract

Phytopathogenic fungi can lead to significant cereal yield losses, also producing mycotoxins dangerous for human and animal health. The fungal control based on the use of synthetic fungicides can be complemented by "green" methods for crop protection, based on the use of natural products. In this frame, the antifungal activities of bergamot and lemon essential oils and of five natural compounds recurrent in essential oils (citronellal, citral, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and limonene) have been evaluated against three species of mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae) responsible for Fusarium Head Blight in small-grain cereals. The natural products concentrations effective for reducing or inhibiting the in vitro fungal growth were determined for each fungal species and the following scale of potency was found: cinnamaldehyde > cuminaldehyde > citral > citronellal > bergamot oil > limonene > lemon oil. Moreover, the in vitro mycotoxin productions of the three Fusaria strains exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the seven products was evaluated. The three fungal species showed variability in response to the treatments, both in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth and in terms of modulation of mycotoxin production that can be enhanced by sub-lethal concentrations of some natural products. This last finding must be taken into account in the frame of an open field application of some plant-derived fungicides. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural products; Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium sporotrichioides; Fusarium langsethiae; T-2; HT-2 toxins; deoxynivalenol (DON) natural products; Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium sporotrichioides; Fusarium langsethiae; T-2; HT-2 toxins; deoxynivalenol (DON)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morcia, C.; Tumino, G.; Ghizzoni, R.; Bara, A.; Salhi, N.; Terzi, V. In Vitro Evaluation of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Plant-Derived Antifungal Compounds on FUSARIA Growth and Mycotoxin Production. Molecules 2017, 22, 1271.

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