Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid Derivatives on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepato-Toxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells
AbstractOxidative stress results in structural and functional abnormalities in the liver and is thought to be a crucial factor in liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of caffeic acid (CA) derivatives on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Nine CA derivatives were synthesized, including N-phenylethyl caffeamide (PECA), N-(3-florophen)methyl caffeamide (FMCA), N-(4-methoxy-phen)methyl caffeamide (MPMCA), N-heptyl caffeamide (HCA), N-octyl caffeamide (OCA), octyl caffeate (CAOE), phenpropyl caffeate (CAPPE), phenethyl caffeate (CAPE), and phenmethyl caffeate (CAPME). The results showed that CA and its derivatives significantly inhibited t-BHP-induced cell death of HepG2 cells. The rank order of potency of the CA derivatives for cytoprotection was CAOE > HCA > OCA > FMCA > CAPPE > CAPME > CAPE > PECA > MPMCA > CA. Their cytoprotective activity was associated with lipophilicity. The antioxidant effect of these compounds was supported by the reduction in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, in HepG2 cells. Pre-treatment of CA derivatives significantly prevented the depletion of glutathione, the most important water-soluble antioxidant in hepatocytes. Pre-treatment of CA derivatives before t-BHP exposure maintained mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and ATP content in the injured HepG2 cells. CA derivatives except OCA and HCA significantly suppressed t-BHP-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level. In addition, all of these CA derivatives markedly increased the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) accumulation in the nucleus, indicating that their cytoprotection may be mediated by the activation of Nrf2. Our results suggest that CA derivatives might be a hepatoprotective agent against oxidative stress. View Full-Text
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Tsai, T.-H.; Yu, C.-H.; Chang, Y.-P.; Lin, Y.-T.; Huang, C.-J.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Tsai, P.-J. Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid Derivatives on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepato-Toxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 702.
Tsai T-H, Yu C-H, Chang Y-P, Lin Y-T, Huang C-J, Kuo Y-H, Tsai P-J. Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid Derivatives on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepato-Toxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells. Molecules. 2017; 22(5):702.Chicago/Turabian Style
Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Yu, Chun-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Ping; Lin, Yu-Ting; Huang, Ching-Jang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Tsai, Po-Jung. 2017. "Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid Derivatives on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepato-Toxicity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells." Molecules 22, no. 5: 702.
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