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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 674; doi:10.3390/molecules22050674

Green Synthesis of Ag/Ag2O Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eupatorium odoratum and Its Antimicrobial and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities

1
Material Science Innovation and Modelling (MaSIM) Research Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2357, South Africa
2
Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
3
Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
4
Department of Chemistry, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), P.M.B. 1010, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Muñoz-Torrero
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract

The health challenges associated with pathogens and ectoparasites highlight the need for effective control approaches. Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards combatting different microbial organisms and parasites. The present work reports the antimicrobial and larvicidal potential of biosynthesized Ag/Ag2O nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Eupatorium odoratum (EO). The constituents of the leaf extract act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. The UV-VIS spectra of the nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance. The particle size and shape of the nanoparticles was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The larvicidal study was carried out using third and fourth instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extract (EO) and the synthesized nanoparticles, and their percentage of mortality was accounted for at different time intervals of 12 h and 24 h periods of exposure. The nanoparticles were more lethal against third and fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the 24 h period of exposure with lower lethal concentration values (LC50 = 95.9 ppm; LC90 = 337.5 ppm) and (LC50 = 166.4 ppm; LC90 = 438.7 ppm) compared to the plant extract (LC50 = 396.8 ppm; LC90 = 716.8 ppm and LC50 = 448.3 ppm; LC90 = 803.9 ppm, respectively). The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles were established against different clinically-isolated microbial strains and compared to that of the plant extract (EO) and standard antimicrobial drugs. The nanoparticles were generally more active than the plant extract against the selected microbial organisms. The Gram-negative bacterial strains Escheerichua coli and Salmonella typhi were more susceptible towards the nanoparticles compared to the Gram-positive strains and the fungal organism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nanoparticles; silver; larvicidal efficacy; antimicrobial; Eupatorium odoratum Nanoparticles; silver; larvicidal efficacy; antimicrobial; Eupatorium odoratum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elemike, E.E.; Onwudiwe, D.C.; Ekennia, A.C.; Sonde, C.U.; Ehiri, R.C. Green Synthesis of Ag/Ag2O Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eupatorium odoratum and Its Antimicrobial and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities. Molecules 2017, 22, 674.

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