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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 703; doi:10.3390/molecules22050703

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase-Inhibiting Activities of the Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus Leaves

1
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovačića 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, Bd. 8, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: László Dux
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Pharmacology of Modulators of Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) leaf is traditionally used in southeastern Europe for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, the ability of bilberry leaf extracts to inhibit carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes and restore glutathione concentration in Hep G2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress was investigated. A comprehensive analysis of the antioxidant activity of two bilberry leaf extracts was performed. The aqueous extract showed excellent total antioxidant and chelating activity. Its antioxidant activity in the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay was very good, reaching the activity of the antioxidant standard BHA (93.4 ± 2.3% vs. 95.1 ± 2.4%, respectively). The hydroethanolic extract (ethanol/H2O, 8:2, v/v), on the other hand, was a better radical scavenger and Fe2+ reducing agent. Furthermore, the aqueous extract was able to efficiently increase glutathione concentration in Hep G2 cells subjected to glucose-induced oxidative stress and restore it to the levels observed in non-hyperglycaemic cells. The hydroethanolic extract strongly inhibited α-glucosidase, with the IC50 statistically equal to the antidiabetic drug acarbose (0.29 ± 0.02 mg/mL vs. 0.50 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and kaemferol derivatives, as well as chlorogenic and p-coumaric acid. The study results indicate that V. myrtillus leaf may have promising properties as a supporting therapy for diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-glucosidase inhibition; antioxidant activity; polyphenol; glutathione; Vaccinium myrtillus α-glucosidase inhibition; antioxidant activity; polyphenol; glutathione; Vaccinium myrtillus
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Bljajić, K.; Petlevski, R.; Vujić, L.; Čačić, A.; Šoštarić, N.; Jablan, J.; Saraiva de Carvalho, I.; Zovko Končić, M. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase-Inhibiting Activities of the Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus Leaves. Molecules 2017, 22, 703.

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