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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 701; doi:10.3390/molecules22050701

Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Costus afer Leaf Extract: Synthesis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Electrochemical Properties

1
Material Science Innovation and Modelling (MaSIM) Research Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
2
Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
3
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, P.M.B 1221 Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
4
Department of Chemistry, Federal University Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), P.M.B 1010 Abakiliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Muñoz-Torrero
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3321 KB, uploaded 29 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. However, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. This study explored the use of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (CA-AgNPs). The optical and structural properties of the resulting silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra–red spectrophotometer (FTIR). TEM images of the silver nanoparticles confirmed the existence of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a mean size of 20 nm. The FTIR spectra affirmed the presence of phytochemicals from the Costus afer leaf extract on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. The electrochemical characterization of a CA-AgNPs/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-modified electrode was carried out to confirm the charge transfer properties of the nanocomposites. The comparative study showed that the CA-AgNPs/MWCNT-modified electrode demonstrated faster charge transport behaviour. The anodic current density of the electrodes in Fe(CN)6]4−/[Fe(CN)6]3− redox probe follows the order: GCE/CA-Ag/MWCNT (550 mA/cm2) > GCE/MWCNT (270 mA/cm2) > GCE (80 mA/cm2) > GCE/CA-Ag (7.93 mA/cm2). The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial properties against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) pathogens. The nanoparticles exhibited better inhibition of the bacterial strains compared to the precursors (leaf extract of Costus afer and silver nitrate). Furthermore, the ability of the nanoparticles to scavenge DPPH radicals at different concentrations was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and compared to that of the leaf extract and ascorbic acid. The nanoparticles were better DPPH scavengers compared to the leaf extract and their antioxidant properties compared favorably the antioxidant results of ascorbic acid. The green approach to nanoparticles synthesis carried out in this research work is simple, non-polluting, inexpensive and non-hazardous. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver nanoparticles; Costus afer; electrochemical; antioxidant; antibacterial silver nanoparticles; Costus afer; electrochemical; antioxidant; antibacterial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elemike, E.E.; Fayemi, O.E.; Ekennia, A.C.; Onwudiwe, D.C.; Ebenso, E.E. Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Costus afer Leaf Extract: Synthesis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Electrochemical Properties. Molecules 2017, 22, 701.

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