Next Article in Journal
An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products
Next Article in Special Issue
The Transcriptome of Type I Murine Astrocytes under Interferon-Gamma Exposure and Remyelination Stimulus
Previous Article in Journal
Purification and Partial Structural Characterization of a Complement Fixating Polysaccharide from Rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong
Previous Article in Special Issue
Regulation of T Cell Activation and Differentiation by Extracellular Vesicles and Their Pathogenic Role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Multiple Sclerosis
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 291; doi:10.3390/molecules22020291

Clinical Signs, Staphylococcus and Atopic Eczema-Related Seromarkers

Department of Pediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China
State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau Institute for Applied Research in Medicine and Health, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau, China
Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China
Institute of Chinese Medicine and State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [435 KB, uploaded 15 February 2017]   |  


Childhood eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a distressing disease associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, impaired quality of life and Staphylococcus aureus isolation. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and various seromarkers of immunity are involved. We investigated if anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (anti-SE), selected seromarkers of T regulatory (Treg), T helper (Th) and antigen-presenting cells (APC) are associated with clinical signs of disease severity and quality of life. Disease severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, and quality of life with the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) in AD patients ≤18 years old. Concentrations of anti-staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B immunoglobulin E (anti-SEA and anti-SEB), selected Treg/Th/APC chemokines, skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured in these patients. Forty patients with AD [median (interquartile range) age of 13.1 (7.9) years) were recruited. Backward stepwise linear regression (controlling for age, personal allergic rhinitis and asthma, and other blood markers) showed the serum anti-SEB level was positively associated with S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolations, objective SCORAD, clinical signs and CDLQI. TNF-α (a Th1 cytokine) was positively associated with objective SCORAD (B = 4.935, p = 0.010), TGF-β (a Treg cytokine) negatively with disease extent (B = −0.015, p = 0.001), IL-18 (an APC cytokine) positively with disease extent (B = 0.438, p = 0.001) and with TEWL (B = 0.040, p = 0.010), and IL-23 (an APC cytokine) negatively with disease extent (B = −2.812, p = 0.006) and positively with pruritus (B = 0.387, p = 0.007). Conclusions: Blood levels of anti-SEB, Th1, Treg and APC cytokines are correlated with various clinical signs of AD. AD is a systemic immunologic disease involving Staphylococcus aureus, cellular, humoral, cytokine and chemokine pathophysiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: atopic dermatitis; anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE; eosinophil; IgE; antigen presenting cell; CDLQI; SCORAD; T helper and Treg lymphocytes atopic dermatitis; anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE; eosinophil; IgE; antigen presenting cell; CDLQI; SCORAD; T helper and Treg lymphocytes

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hon, K.L.; Tsang, K.Y.C.; Kung, J.S.C.; Leung, T.F.; Lam, C.W.K.; Wong, C.K. Clinical Signs, Staphylococcus and Atopic Eczema-Related Seromarkers. Molecules 2017, 22, 291.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top