Next Article in Journal
Polyphenolics from Albizia harveyi Exhibit Antioxidant Activities and Counteract Oxidative Damage and Ultra-Structural Changes of Cryopreserved Bull Semen
Next Article in Special Issue
Antimalarial Activity of Acetylenic Thiophenes from Echinops hoehnelii Schweinf
Previous Article in Journal
Oleanane-Type Saponins from the Roots of Ligulariopsis shichuana and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Four Prenylflavone Derivatives with Antiplasmodial Activities from the Stem of Tephrosia purpurea subsp. leptostachya
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1990; doi:10.3390/molecules22111990

Baccharis reticularia DC. and Limonene Nanoemulsions: Promising Larvicidal Agents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Control

Walter Mors Institute of Research on Natural Products, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Macapá 68.903-419, Brazil
Faculty of Teacher Training, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo 24435-005, Brazil
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói 24210-346, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1647 KB, uploaded 23 November 2017]   |  


Baccharis reticularia DC. is a plant species from the Asteraceae family that is endemic to Brazil. Despite the great importance of Baccharis genus, no study has been carried out regarding either the phytochemical composition of B. reticularia or the evaluation of its larvicidal potential. Considering the intrinsic immiscibility of essential oils, this study shows larvicidal nanoemulsions containing the B. reticularia phytochemically characterized essential oil and its main constituent against Aedes aegypti. The major compound found was d-limonene (25.7%). The essential oil inhibited the acetylcholinesterase, one of the main targets of insecticides. The required hydrophile-lipophile balance of both nanoemulsions was 15.0. The mean droplet sizes were around 90.0 nm, and no major alterations were observed after 24 h of preparation for both formulations. After 48 h of treatment, the estimated LC50 values were 118.94 μg mL−1 and 81.19 μg mL−1 for B. reticularia essential oil and d-limonene nanoemulsions, respectively. Morphological alterations evidenced by scanning electron micrography were observed on the larvae treated with the d-limonene nanoemulsion. This paper demonstrated a simple and ecofriendly method for obtaining B. reticularia essential oil and d-limonene aqueous nanoemulsions by a non-heating and solvent-free method, as promising alternatives for Aedes aegypti control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asteraceae; early stage fourth-instar larvae; low energy method; scanning electron microscopy Asteraceae; early stage fourth-instar larvae; low energy method; scanning electron microscopy

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Botas, G.S.; Cruz, R.A.S.; de Almeida, F.B.; Duarte, J.L.; Araújo, R.S.; Souto, R.N.P.; Ferreira, R.; Carvalho, J.C.T.; Santos, M.G.; Rocha, L.; Pereira, V.L.P.; Fernandes, C.P. Baccharis reticularia DC. and Limonene Nanoemulsions: Promising Larvicidal Agents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Control. Molecules 2017, 22, 1990.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top