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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1990; doi:10.3390/molecules22111990

Baccharis reticularia DC. and Limonene Nanoemulsions: Promising Larvicidal Agents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Control

1
Walter Mors Institute of Research on Natural Products, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
2
Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Macapá 68.903-419, Brazil
3
Faculty of Teacher Training, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo 24435-005, Brazil
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói 24210-346, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract

Baccharis reticularia DC. is a plant species from the Asteraceae family that is endemic to Brazil. Despite the great importance of Baccharis genus, no study has been carried out regarding either the phytochemical composition of B. reticularia or the evaluation of its larvicidal potential. Considering the intrinsic immiscibility of essential oils, this study shows larvicidal nanoemulsions containing the B. reticularia phytochemically characterized essential oil and its main constituent against Aedes aegypti. The major compound found was d-limonene (25.7%). The essential oil inhibited the acetylcholinesterase, one of the main targets of insecticides. The required hydrophile-lipophile balance of both nanoemulsions was 15.0. The mean droplet sizes were around 90.0 nm, and no major alterations were observed after 24 h of preparation for both formulations. After 48 h of treatment, the estimated LC50 values were 118.94 μg mL−1 and 81.19 μg mL−1 for B. reticularia essential oil and d-limonene nanoemulsions, respectively. Morphological alterations evidenced by scanning electron micrography were observed on the larvae treated with the d-limonene nanoemulsion. This paper demonstrated a simple and ecofriendly method for obtaining B. reticularia essential oil and d-limonene aqueous nanoemulsions by a non-heating and solvent-free method, as promising alternatives for Aedes aegypti control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Asteraceae; early stage fourth-instar larvae; low energy method; scanning electron microscopy Asteraceae; early stage fourth-instar larvae; low energy method; scanning electron microscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Botas, G.S.; Cruz, R.A.S.; de Almeida, F.B.; Duarte, J.L.; Araújo, R.S.; Souto, R.N.P.; Ferreira, R.; Carvalho, J.C.T.; Santos, M.G.; Rocha, L.; Pereira, V.L.P.; Fernandes, C.P. Baccharis reticularia DC. and Limonene Nanoemulsions: Promising Larvicidal Agents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Control. Molecules 2017, 22, 1990.

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