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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 99; doi:10.3390/molecules22010099

An Integrated View of the Effects of Wine Polyphenols and Their Relevant Metabolites on Gut and Host Health

1
Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL), CSIC-UAM. Nicolás Cabrera, 9. Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Grupo de Investigación en Polifenoles, Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 6 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids: From Structure to Health Issues)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1606 KB, uploaded 6 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Over the last few decades, polyphenols, and flavonoids in particular, have attracted the interest of researchers, as they have been associated with the health-promoting effects derived from diets rich in vegetables and fruits, including moderate wine consumption. Recent scientific evidence suggests that wine polyphenols exert their effects through interactions with the gut microbiota, as they seem to modulate microbiota and, at the same time, are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into specific bioavailable metabolites. Microbial metabolites are better absorbed than their precursors and may be responsible for positive health activities in the digestive system (local effects) and, after being absorbed, in tissues and organs (systemic effects). Differences in gut microbiota composition and functionality among individuals can affect polyphenol activity and, therefore, their health effects. The aim of this review is to integrate the understanding of the metabolism and mechanisms of action of wine polyphenols at both local and systemic levels, underlining their impact on the gut microbiome and the inter-individual variability associated with polyphenols’ metabolism and further physiological effects. The advent of promising dietary approaches linked to wine polyphenols beyond the gut microbiota community and metabolism are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine polyphenols; flavonoids; gut microbiota; microbial phenolic metabolites; inter-individual variability wine polyphenols; flavonoids; gut microbiota; microbial phenolic metabolites; inter-individual variability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cueva, C.; Gil-Sánchez, I.; Ayuda-Durán, B.; González-Manzano, S.; González-Paramás, A.M.; Santos-Buelga, C.; Bartolomé, B.; Moreno-Arribas, M.V. An Integrated View of the Effects of Wine Polyphenols and Their Relevant Metabolites on Gut and Host Health. Molecules 2017, 22, 99.

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