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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 92; doi:10.3390/molecules22010092

Kaempferol and Chrysin Synergies to Improve Septic Mice Survival

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400 Selangor, Malaysia
Current address: Faculty of Pharmacy, University Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Bandar Baru Puncak Alam, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Celestino Santos-Buelga and Arturo San Feliciano
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids: From Structure to Health Issues)
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Abstract

Previously, we reported the role of synergy between two flavonoids—namely, chrysin and kaempferol—in inhibiting the secretion of a few major proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of this combination on a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Severe sepsis was induced in male ICR mice (n = 7) via the CLP procedure. The effects of chrysin and kaempferol combination treatment on septic mice were investigated using a 7-day survival study. The levels of key proinflammatory mediators and markers—such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), TNF-α, and NO—in the sera samples of the septic mice were determined via ELISA and fluorescence determination at different time point intervals post-CLP challenge. Liver tissue samples from septic mice were harvested to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels using a spectrophotometer. Moreover, intraperitoneal fluid (IPF) bacterial clearance and total leukocyte count were also assessed to detect any antibacterial effects exerted by chrysin and kaempferol, individually and in combination. Kaempferol treatment improved the survival rate of CLP-challenged mice by up to 16%. During this treatment, kaempferol expressed antibacterial, antiapoptotic and antioxidant activities through the attenuation of bacterial forming units, AST and NO levels, and increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) count in the IPF. On the other hand, the chrysin treatment significantly reduced serum TNF-α levels. However, it failed to significantly improve the survival rate of the CLP-challenged mice. Subsequently, the kaempferol/chrysin combination treatment significantly improved the overall 7-day survival rate by 2-fold—up to 29%. Kaempferol and chrysin revealed some synergistic effects by acting individually upon multiple pathophysiological factors involved during sepsis. Although the kaempferol/chrysin combination did not exhibit significant antibacterial effects, it did exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, which translate to significant improvement in the survival rate of septic animals. These findings suggest the potential application of this combination treatment as a beneficial adjuvant supplement strategy in sepsis control. View Full-Text
Keywords: chrysin; kaempferol; polymicrobial sepsis chrysin; kaempferol; polymicrobial sepsis
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Harasstani, O.A.; Tham, C.L.; Israf, D.A. Kaempferol and Chrysin Synergies to Improve Septic Mice Survival. Molecules 2017, 22, 92.

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