NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin
AbstractRuthenium (Ru) complexes have been studied as promising anticancer agents. Ru nitrosyl complex (Ru-NO) is one which acts as a pro-drug for the release of nitric oxide (NO). The Ru-aqueous complex formed by the exchange of NO for a water molecule after NO release could also possess therapeutic effects. This study evaluates the influence of iontophoresis on enhancing the skin penetration of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous and assesses its applicability as a tool in treating diverse skin diseases. Passive and iontophoretic (0.5 mA·cm−2) skin permeation of the complexes were performed for 4 h. The amount of Ru and NO in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis (VE), and receptor solution was quantified while the influence of iontophoresis and irradiation on NO release from Ru-NO complex was also evaluated. Iontophoresis increased the amount of Ru-NO and Ru-aqueous recovered from the receptor solution by 15 and 400 times, respectively, as compared to passive permeation. Iontophoresis produced a higher accumulation of Ru-aqueous in the skin layers as compared to Ru-NO. At least 50% of Ru-NO penetrated the SC was stable after 4 h. The presence of Ru-NO in this skin layer suggests that further controlled release of NO can be achieved by photo-stimulation after iontophoresis. View Full-Text
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de Santana, D.C.A.S.; Dias, K.; Souza, J.G.; Ogunjimi, A.T.; Souza, M.C.; Silva, R.S.; Lopez, R.F.V. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin. Molecules 2017, 22, 104.
de Santana DCAS, Dias K, Souza JG, Ogunjimi AT, Souza MC, Silva RS, Lopez RFV. NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin. Molecules. 2017; 22(1):104.Chicago/Turabian Style
de Santana, Danielle C.A.S.; Dias, Karina; Souza, Joel G.; Ogunjimi, Abayomi T.; Souza, Marina C.; Silva, Roberto S.; Lopez, Renata F.V. 2017. "NO Exchange for a Water Molecule Favorably Changes Iontophoretic Release of Ruthenium Complexes to the Skin." Molecules 22, no. 1: 104.
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