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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1233; doi:10.3390/molecules21091233

Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral

1
The Institute of Drug Research, Fujian Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350003, China
2
The College of Pharmacy, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350122, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Quan-Bin Han, Sunan Wang and Shaoping Nie
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6676 KB, uploaded 14 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 104 Da and it was only composed of d-glucose monosaccharide. Structure elucidation indicated that H-1-2 contains pyranride, and has the characteristics of the α-iso-head configuration, a non-reducing end (T-), 4-, 1,6-, and 1,4,6-connection, in all four ways to connect glucose. H-1-2 was a type of glucan, where chemical combination exists in the main chain between 1→4 linked glucose, and contains a small amount of 1,6-linked glucose, which was in the branched chain. In vitro HepG2, 3T3-L1, and L6 cells were used to assess cellular glucose consumption and cellular glucose uptake by glucose oxidase, and the transport of 2-NBDG fluorescence probe results showed that H-1-2 could clearly increase glucose uptake and utilization in muscle and adipose cells, which is beneficial to screen for in the discovery of anti-diabetes lead compounds. H-1-2 was labeled with radioisotopes (99mTc-pertechnetate). 99mTc-labeled-H-1-2 was performed by SPECT/CT analysis images after oral administration in rats. At 4 h post ingestion, about 50% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine. No significant radioactivity was found in the heart, liver, and kidney, conjecturing that absorption of 99mTc-labeled H-1-2 might, via intestinal mucosa, be absorbed into systemic circulation. This problem, as to whether the polysaccharide is absorbed orally, will need further examination. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudostellaria heterophylla; a novel polysaccharide; structure; glucose uptake; distribution taken orally Pseudostellaria heterophylla; a novel polysaccharide; structure; glucose uptake; distribution taken orally
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Chen, J.; Pang, W.; Shi, W.; Yang, B.; Kan, Y.; He, Z.; Hu, J. Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral. Molecules 2016, 21, 1233.

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