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Molecules 2016, 21(7), 836; doi:10.3390/molecules21070836

Nanoparticles: Alternatives Against Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Microbes

1
Department of Biotechnology, East-West College of Science, Bangalore-560091, Karnataka, India
2
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Darul Ehsan 43400, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Didier Astruc
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 27 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Nanomedicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1358 KB, uploaded 27 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Antimicrobial substances may be synthetic, semisynthetic, or of natural origin (i.e., from plants and animals). Antimicrobials are considered “miracle drugs” and can determine if an infected patient/animal recovers or dies. However, the misuse of antimicrobials has led to the development of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, which is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare practitioners and is a significant global threat. The major concern with the development of antimicrobial resistance is the spread of resistant organisms. The replacement of conventional antimicrobials by new technology to counteract antimicrobial resistance is ongoing. Nanotechnology-driven innovations provide hope for patients and practitioners in overcoming the problem of drug resistance. Nanomaterials have tremendous potential in both the medical and veterinary fields. Several nanostructures comprising metallic particles have been developed to counteract microbial pathogens. The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NPs) depends on the interaction between the microorganism and the NPs. The development of effective nanomaterials requires in-depth knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NPs and the biological aspects of microorganisms. However, the risks associated with using NPs in healthcare need to be addressed. The present review highlights the antimicrobial effects of various nanomaterials and their potential advantages, drawbacks, or side effects. In addition, this comprehensive information may be useful in the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for use against multi-drug-resistant microbial pathogens in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; drug resistance; antimicrobial; mode of action; synthesis; silver; metal oxide; pathogens; antibiotics; medicine nanoparticles; drug resistance; antimicrobial; mode of action; synthesis; silver; metal oxide; pathogens; antibiotics; medicine
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Rudramurthy, G.R.; Swamy, M.K.; Sinniah, U.R.; Ghasemzadeh, A. Nanoparticles: Alternatives Against Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Microbes. Molecules 2016, 21, 836.

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