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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 461; doi:10.3390/molecules21040461

Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats

Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 26 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8–10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phlomis umbrosa; bone growth rate; IGF-1; growth plate Phlomis umbrosa; bone growth rate; IGF-1; growth plate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-S.; Song, J.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, H.J.; Guo, H.; Kim, H. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats. Molecules 2016, 21, 461.

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