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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 404; doi:10.3390/molecules21040404

The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease

1
Department of Natural Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
3
Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
4
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1-3, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
5
Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszów University of Technology, Powstańców Warszawy 6, Rzeszów 35-959, Poland
6
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Komenského 73, Košice 04181, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Natural Products in the Context of Cardiometabolic Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4446 KB, uploaded 25 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE)-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL). The chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1) and leucodin (CP2) showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results. View Full-Text
Keywords: Achillea wilhelmsii; anti-hypercholesterolemic; cardiometabolic disease; docking; flavonoids; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase; hypoglycemic; inflammation Achillea wilhelmsii; anti-hypercholesterolemic; cardiometabolic disease; docking; flavonoids; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase; hypoglycemic; inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Khazneh, E.; Hřibová, P.; Hošek, J.; Suchý, P.; Kollár, P.; Pražanová, G.; Muselík, J.; Hanaková, Z.; Václavík, J.; Miłek, M.; Legáth, J.; Šmejkal, K. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease. Molecules 2016, 21, 404.

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