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Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1476; doi:10.3390/molecules21111476

Assessment of Chemical Impact of Invasive Bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica on the Environment: Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of P. magnifica Extracts

1
Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1946/1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
2
Department of Natural Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1946/1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
3
Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6, 16521, Czech Republic
4
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Branišovská 31, České Budějovice 37005, Czech Republic
5
Department of Biological Studies, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Studentská 13, České Budějovice 37005, Czech Republic
6
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Flemingovo nám. 2, Prague 16610, Czech Republic
7
RECETOX—Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno 60200, Czech Republic
8
Department of Experimental Phycology and Ecotoxicology, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Lidická 25/27, Brno 60200, Czech Republic
9
Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého tř. 1946/1, Brno 61242, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josef Jampilek
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
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Abstract

Pectinatella magnifica, an invasive bryozoan, might significantly affect ecosystem balance due to its massive occurrence in many areas in Europe and other parts of the world. Biological and chemical analyses are needed to get complete information about the impact of the animal on the environment. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic effects of five extracts prepared from P. magnifica using LDH assay on THP-1 cell line. Antimicrobial activities of extracts against 22 different bacterial strains were tested by microdilution method. Our study showed that all extracts tested, except aqueous portion, demonstrated LD50 values below 100 μg/mL, which indicates potential toxicity. The water extract of P. magnifica with LD50 value of 250 μg/mL also shows potentially harmful effects. Also, an environmental risk resulting from the presence and increasing biomass of potentially toxic benthic cyanobacteria in old colonies should not be underestimated. Toxicity of Pectinatella extracts could be partially caused by presence of Aeromonas species in material, since we found members of these genera as most abundant bacteria associated with P. magnifica. Furthermore, P. magnifica seems to be a promising source of certain antimicrobial agents. Its methanolic extract, hexane, and chloroform fractions possessed selective inhibitory effect on some potential pathogens and food spoiling bacteria in the range of MIC 0.5–10 mg/mL. Future effort should be made to isolate and characterize the content compounds derived from P. magnifica, which could help to identify the substance(s) responsible for the toxic effects of P. magnifica extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aeromonas; antimicrobial activity; bacteria; Bryozoa; cyanobacteria; invasive species; Pectinatella magnifica; toxicity Aeromonas; antimicrobial activity; bacteria; Bryozoa; cyanobacteria; invasive species; Pectinatella magnifica; toxicity
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Kollar, P.; Šmejkal, K.; Salmonová, H.; Vlková, E.; Lepšová-Skácelová, O.; Balounová, Z.; Rajchard, J.; Cvačka, J.; Jaša, L.; Babica, P.; Pazourek, J. Assessment of Chemical Impact of Invasive Bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica on the Environment: Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of P. magnifica Extracts. Molecules 2016, 21, 1476.

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