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Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1388; doi:10.3390/molecules21101388

Decrystallization of Crystals Using Gold “Nano-Bullets” and the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique

1
Department of Chemistry, Morgan State University, 1700 East Cold Spring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA
2
Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Morgan State University, 1700 East Cold Spring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21251, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gold Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6151 KB, uploaded 18 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Gout is caused by the overproduction of uric acid and the inefficient metabolism of dietary purines in humans. Current treatments of gout, which include anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and systemic glucocorticoids, have harmful side-effects. Our research laboratory has recently introduced an innovative approach for the decrystallization of biological and chemical crystals using the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Decrystallization (MAMAD) technique. In the MAMAD technique, microwave energy is used to heat and activate gold nanoparticles that behave as “nano-bullets” to rapidly disrupt the crystal structure of biological crystals placed on planar surfaces. In this study, crystals of various sizes and compositions were studied as models for tophaceous gout at different stages (i.e., uric acid as small crystals (~10–100 μm) and l-alanine as medium (~300 μm) and large crystals (~4400 μm). Our results showed that the use of the MAMAD technique resulted in the reduction of the size and number of uric acid and l-alanine crystals up to >40% when exposed to intermittent microwave heating (up to 20 W power at 8 GHz) in the presence of 20 nm gold nanoparticles up to 120 s. This study demonstrates that the MAMAD technique can be potentially used as an alternative therapeutic method for the treatment of gout by effective decrystallization of large crystals, similar in size to those that often occur in gout. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative de-crystallization; emblation microwave; gout; uric acid; l-alanine; gold nanoparticles metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative de-crystallization; emblation microwave; gout; uric acid; l-alanine; gold nanoparticles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Thompson, N.; Boone-Kukoyi, Z.; Shortt, R.; Lansiquot, C.; Kioko, B.; Bonyi, E.; Toker, S.; Ozturk, B.; Aslan, K. Decrystallization of Crystals Using Gold “Nano-Bullets” and the Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Decrystallization Technique. Molecules 2016, 21, 1388.

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