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Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16524-16539; doi:10.3390/molecules200916524

Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components

1
Department of Pharmacology, Biocenter Campus Riedberg, Goethe-University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt 60438, Germany
2
Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Koulen
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract

Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE) rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption) has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084). To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis) in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; rice bran extract; vitamin E; tocopherol; tocotrienol; PC12 cells; aging; prevention; neurodegeneration mitochondria; rice bran extract; vitamin E; tocopherol; tocotrienol; PC12 cells; aging; prevention; neurodegeneration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hagl, S.; Berressem, D.; Bruns, B.; Sus, N.; Frank, J.; Eckert, G.P. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components. Molecules 2015, 20, 16524-16539.

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