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Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16540-16565; doi:10.3390/molecules200916540

Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Fungi and Yeast: A Review of Their Preparation, Properties, and Medical Applications

1
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
2
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
3
Research Center for Animal Development Applied Biology & Department of Medicine, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad 91735, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2295 KB, uploaded 15 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. Among the many possible bio resources, biologically active products from fungi and yeast represent excellent scaffolds for this purpose. Since fungi and yeast are very effective secretors of extracellular enzymes and number of species grow fast and therefore culturing and keeping them in the laboratory are very simple. They are able to produce metal nanoparticles and nanostructure via reducing enzyme intracellularly or extracellularly. The focus of this review is the application of fungi and yeast in the green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Meanwhile the domain of biosynthesized nanoparticles is somewhat novel; the innovative uses in nano medicine in different areas including the delivery of drug, cancer therapy, antibacterial, biosensors, and MRI and medical imaging are reviewed. The proposed signaling pathways of nanoparticles induced apoptosis in cancerous cells and anti-angiogenesis effects also are reviewed. In this article, we provide a short summary of the present study universally on the utilization of eukaryotes like yeast and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and their uses. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; fungi; yeast; apoptosis; anti-angiogenesis nanoparticle; fungi; yeast; apoptosis; anti-angiogenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Boroumand Moghaddam, A.; Namvar, F.; Moniri, M.; Md. Tahir, P.; Azizi, S.; Mohamad, R. Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Fungi and Yeast: A Review of Their Preparation, Properties, and Medical Applications. Molecules 2015, 20, 16540-16565.

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