Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine
AbstractVolatile phenols, such as 4-ethyphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), are responsible for the “Brett character” found in wines contaminated with Brettanomyces yeast (i.e., barnyard, animal, spicy and smoky aromas). In these trials, we explore the effectiveness of polyaniline-based compounds (polyaniline emeraldin salt (PANI-ES) and polyanaline emeraldin base (PANI-EB)), for the removal of 4-EP and 4-EG from acidic model solutions and red wine. First, a screening study, performed in an acidified 12% ethanol solution, was used to optimize parameters such as contact time and the amount of polymers required to remove 4-EP and 4-EG. Then, the trapping ability of PANI agents towards 4-EP and 4-EG was evaluated in a model solution containing other wine phenolics that could potentially be trapped by PANI (i.e., gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol). The results of this trial showed that both PANI compounds were capable of removing 4-EP, 4-EG, regardless of the presence of other phenolic compounds present at a much higher concentration. Finally, the capturing ability of PANI was evaluated in a red wine sample containing 5 mg·L−1 of 4-EP, 5 mg·L−1 of 4-EG and 2.03 ± 0.02 g·L−1 of total phenolics. The results showed that PANI-EB removed significantly more 4-EP and 4-EG than PANI-ES. For instance, a treatment with 10 mg·mL−1 of PANI-EB produced a 67.8% reduction of 4-EP, 50% reduction of 4-EG and 41.38% decrease in total phenols. View Full-Text
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Carrasco-Sánchez, V.; John, A.; Marican, A.; Santos, L.S.; Laurie, V.F. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine. Molecules 2015, 20, 14312-14325.
Carrasco-Sánchez V, John A, Marican A, Santos LS, Laurie VF. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine. Molecules. 2015; 20(8):14312-14325.Chicago/Turabian Style
Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; John, Amalraj; Marican, Adolfo; Santos, Leonardo S.; Laurie, V. F. 2015. "Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine." Molecules 20, no. 8: 14312-14325.