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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 13144-13164; doi:10.3390/molecules200713144

Allergenic Proteins in Enology: A Review on Technological Applications and Safety Aspects

1
Institute of Food Science, Nutrition and Technology (ICTAN-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, Madrid 28006, Spain
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Balzzaretti 9, Milano 20133, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susan E. Ebeler and Helene Hopfer
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [713 KB, uploaded 21 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Proteinaceous products are widely used as fining agents during winemaking to remove unwanted insoluble particles and undissolved microscopic particles (colloidal material) from the must or wine to improve stability. Some of them (egg white, caseinates, and fish gelatine) have allergenic potential and the presence of their residues in the final product could represent a risk for allergic individuals. Moreover, lysozyme (an egg allergen) is included among wine additives to control the fermentation processes and avoid spoiling during winemaking. The aim of this paper is to review the experimental/clinical data on the use of allergenic products in enology and the measurement of relative risk for sensitized subjects. In addition, methods developed specifically for the quantification of allergenic residues in must and wine are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: winemaking; food allergens; allergenic residues; fining agents; egg proteins, milk proteins; isinglass winemaking; food allergens; allergenic residues; fining agents; egg proteins, milk proteins; isinglass
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Peñas, E.; di Lorenzo, C.; Uberti, F.; Restani, P. Allergenic Proteins in Enology: A Review on Technological Applications and Safety Aspects. Molecules 2015, 20, 13144-13164.

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