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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12525-12544; doi:10.3390/molecules200712525

Microbiological Assessment, Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Compounds of Bee Pollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983

1
Grupo de Pesquisa Insecta, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil
2
Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
3
Centro de Química-Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
4
Centro de Investigação de Montanha, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

This study aims to assess the microbiological parameters and the chemical composition of 21 samples of stingless bee pollen (Melipona mandacaia) from two regions of Bahia, Brazil (João Dourado and Uibaí), with particular emphasis on the nutritional value, total phenols and flavonoids and fatty acids composition. Regarding the microbiological quality, the studied microorganisms (moulds and yeasts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., psychrotrophic and sulfite-reducing Clostridia) were absent in all samples. On the other hand, the values obtained for the aerobic mesophilic microorganism ranged from 11.0 ± 1.0 to 1.32 ± 1.2 cfu∙g1 (JD samples) and from 282 ± 3.82 to 688 ± 10.1 cfu∙g1 (U samples). The nutritional parameters (moisture, ash, water activity, pH, total acidity, protein, fiber, total phenolic, flavonoids and reducing sugars) were within the stipulated by law, except for pH and moisture content, which presented superior and inferior values, respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (54.1%) were significantly higher than saturated (42.18%) and monounsaturated (3.71%). It was found that the bee pollen is safe from the microbiological point of view and has a good nutritional quality. The influence of the geographical origin on the assessed parameters was evident, especially concerning the fatty acid profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee pollen; fatty acids; Melipona mandacaia; microbiological quality; nutritional characterization; stingless bee bee pollen; fatty acids; Melipona mandacaia; microbiological quality; nutritional characterization; stingless bee
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bárbara, M.S.; Machado, C.S.; Sodré, G.S.; Dias, L.G.; Estevinho, L.M.; de Carvalho, C.A.L. Microbiological Assessment, Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Compounds of Bee Pollen from Mellipona mandacaia Smith, 1983. Molecules 2015, 20, 12525-12544.

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